Ce este formarea profesionala?

Ce este formarea profesionala?

[:ro]Accesul la formare profesionala este un drept al salariatilor si are ca scop actualizarea continua a salariatilor pentru posturile pe care le ocupa, sau insusirea de noi cunostinte pentru promovarea pe alte posturi vacante din cadrul companiei.
Conform Codului Muncii, angajatorii au obligatia de a asigura, pe cheltuiala proprie, participarea ocazionala la programe de formare profesionala pentru toti salariatii.
Formarea profesionala se face cel putin o data la 2 ani daca au cel putin  21 de salariati, sau  cel putin o data la 3 ani, daca au sub 21 de salariati.
De cate feluri este concediul pentru formare profesionala?
Concediul pentru formare profesionala poate fi platit sau fara plata.
In cazul in care formarea profesioanala este initiata de angajator, toate cheltuielile sunt suportate de acesta, fara a afecta drepturile salariale ale angajatului. Participarea salariatului la cursul de formare profesionala poate fi cu scoaterea totala sau partiala din activitate a acestuia si nu se scade din concediul de odihna. Perioada de formare profesionala constituie vechime in munca.
In cazul in care angajatorul nu asigura formarea profesionala a salariatului, acesta are dreptul sa participe la cursuri de formare profesionala in limita a 10 zile lucratoare sau 80 ore, pe cheltuiala angajatorului, daca angajatorul considera ca formarea profesionala ajuta angajatul in profesia pe care o exercita. In aceasta situatie angajatul comunica angajatorului cu cel putin 30 zile inainte de inceperea cursului, detalii despre curs. Acesta este un concediu platit numai daca salariatul are acordul angajatorului.
Concediu fara plata se solicita pentru formare profesionala pe care salariatul o urmeaza din initiativa sa, fara sa aiba legatura cu atributiile postului acupat. Salariatul poate intra in concediu fara plata pentru formare profesionala numai cu acordul angajatorului. Angajatorul poate refuza concediul fara plata pentru formare profesionala daca scoaterea salariatului din activitate i-ar crea neajunsuri.
Elevii sau studentii pot solicita concediu fara plata pentru formare profesionala, care se poate lua fractionat in decursul anului, pentru sustinerea examenelor, dar numai cu acordul angajatorului.
Angajatorul trebuie sa faca anual un plan de formare profesionala pentru salariati, pe care sa-l treaca in regulamentul intern sau in contractul colectiv de munca, daca este cazul.
Ce contine clauza de formare profesionala?
Dupa ce angajatorul a dispus si sustinut formarea profesionala a unui angajat, acestia pot incheia o clauza de formare profesionala care sa reglementeze drepturile si obligatiile partilor, si trebuie sa contina cel putin:

  • Identitatea partilor;
  • Obiectul clauzei;
  • Initiatorul programului de formare profesionala;
  • Perioada de desfasurare a formarii;
  • Modalitatea de desfasurare a formarii – unde se specifica daca formarea profesionala presupune scoaterea partiala sau totala a salariatului din activitate, si daca salariatul trebuie sa sustina examen la sfarsitul cursului pentru verificarea cunostintelor insusite;
  • Perioada pe care isi produce efectele clauza – perioada maxima pe care o clauza isi poate produce efecte este de 24 luni dupa finalizarea cursului;
  • Furnizorul de formare profesionala;
  • Pretul si cheltuielile ocazionate;
  • Drepturile si obligatiile partilor;

Care sunt drepturile si obligatiile partilor pe perioada clauzei de formare profesionala?
Salariatul are urmatoarele drepturi si obligatii principale:

  • Sa participe activ la toate activitatile desfasurate pe parcursul cursul de formare profesionala si sa nu lipseasca fara motive bine intemeiate;
  • Sa respecte regulile stabilite de furnizorul de formare profesionala pe toata periada cursului;
  • Are dreptul la salariul corespunzator pentru perioada in care participa la formare chiar daca aceasta implica scoaterea totala a sa din activitate;
  • Sa-si insuseasca cunostintele necesare astfel incat sa promoveze examenul de la sfarsitul cursului; In cazul in care examenul final nu este promovat, adica insusirea cunostintelor nu este validata, salariatul se obliga sa inapoieze angajatorului toate cheltuielile aparute cu formarea sa profesionala.
  • Se obliga sa foloseasca toate informatiile de care a luat cunoastinta pe perioada formarii, in cel mai benefic mod in activitatea sa, si sa stabileasca o procedura de lucru pe care s-o actualizeze constant si pe care s-o poata folosi orice coleg in perioadele in care el nu este la munca.
  • Sa suporte cheltuielile ocazionate cu formarea profesionala daca pe perioada clauzei (maxim 24 luni) initiaza incetarea contractului de munca. Perioada neamortizata se calculeaza astfel: suma ocazionata cu cheltuielile pentru formare /24 (luni) * nr. de luni ramase de amortizat. Lunile ramase de amortizat sunt lunile care au ramas pana la implinirea celor 24 luni pe care a fost incheiata clauza. Daca salariatul a lucrat dupa semnarea clauzei 4 luni, raman 20 luni de amortizat, iar daca salariatul a lucrat 16 luni de la semnarea clauzei, raman 8 luni de amortizat.

Angajatorul are urmatoarele drepturi si obligatii principale:

  • Sa initieze cursul de formare profesionala;
  • Sa suporte toate cheltuielile ocazionate cu formarea profesionala;
  • Sa plateasca remuneratia salariatului fara sa fie afectata de participarea la curs;
  • Sa foloseasca salariatul corespunzator formarii;
  • Sa-si recupereze banii pentru formare profesionala daca salariatul initiaza incetarea in perioada in care clauza isi produce efecte.

 
Ai nevoie de ajutor in intocmirea clauzei de formare profesionala? Contacteaza specialistii Kreston Romania.[:en]The employee has the right to avail professional training in order to continuously update themselves for the positions they occupy, or to acquire knowledge to be promoted in other roles within the company.
According to the Labour Code, employers have the obligation to bear the cost of occasionally providing vocational trainings to all their employees.
Professional training must be provided at least once every two years if they have more than 21 employees, and at least once every three years if they have less than 21 employees.
Are there different type of leave for professional training?Professional training leave may be paid or unpaid.
When the vocational training has been initiated by the employer, all expenses generated by such participation shall be borne by the employer, without affecting the employee’s salary rights. Employees participation in the professional training may be either full time or part time and the employee shall not be considered absent for the training duration and it will not be deducted from the annual leave. The training period is considered seniority.
 
If the employer does not provide the professional training of the employee, he / she has the right to attend vocational training courses within 10 working days or 80 hours, on employer’s expenses, if the employer considers that the training helps the employee in his / her profession. In this case, the employee has to inform the employer at least 30 days prior to training’s start, and provide details about the course. This is paid leave only if the employee has the employer’s agreement.
 
Unpaid leave is required for training that the employee wants to take and it’s outside his scope of work. The employee may have unpaid leave for training only with the employer’s agreement. The employer has the right to decline the unpaid leave for training if removing the employee from work would create shortcomings.
Students may apply for unpaid leave for professional training, which can be split in the course of the year to take exams, but only with employer’s agreement.
The employer must create an annual training plan for employees, which must be included in the internal regulation or collective employment contract, if applicable.
What does the professional training clause contain?
After the employer has disposed and supported the training of an employee, they may conclude a professional training clause that regulates the rights and obligations of the parties and must contain at least:

  • Identity of the parties;
  • Scope of the clause;
  • The initiator of the training program;
  • The training period;
  • Training specifics –  whether the training involves the partial or total removal of the employee from work, and whether the employee must take an exam at the end of the course to verify the knowledge acquired.
  • Duration of clause’s effects – the maximum period a clause can take effect is 24 months after the completion of the course;
  • Vocational training provider;
  • The price and any additional expenses incurred;
  • The rights and obligations of the parties;

What are the rights and obligations of the parties during the vocational training clause?
The employee has the following main rights and obligations:
Rights:

  • To actively participate in all the activities carried out during the training course and to not skip classes without a valid reason;
  • To follow the rules set by the training provider throughout the course;
  • To receive the salary for the period in which he / she takes part in the training even if it involves his / her total removal;
  • To acquire the necessary knowledge to pass the final exam.

Obligations:

  • If the employee doesn’t pass the final exam, meaning the knowledge acquired is not validated, the employee undertakes to return to the employer all expenses incurred by his / her professional training.
  • To use all the information acquired during the training, in the most beneficial way in his activity, establish a working strategy and constantly update it and make it available to others so that any colleague can use it at any given time.
  • To bear the costs of training if, during the term of the clause (maximum 24 months), he initiated the termination of the employment contract/resigns.

The uncovered period is calculated as follows: the amount of the training expenses / 24 (months) * no. of remaining months.
The months to be covered are the remaining months til the 24 months of the initial agreement concluded between the parties. If the employee worked for 4 months after signing the clause, he / she must return the amount for 20 months, and if the employee has worked for 16 months after signing the clause, he / she must return the amount for 8 months.
The employer has the following main rights and obligations.
Obligations:

  • Initiate the training course;
  • To bear all costs incurred in training
  • To pay the employee’s salary without taking into consideration his/her work absence.

Rights:

  • To use the employee according to the training;
  • To recover their training costs if the employee initiates the termination of the employment contract during the clause

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