Este telemunca un beneficiu?

Este telemunca un beneficiu?

[:ro]Telemunca a fost aprobata in aprilie 2018 ca un avantaj atat pentru salariat cat si pentru angajator, desi mari diferente fata de munca la domiciliu care era mentionata in Codul Muncii, nu sunt. Dar cum munca la domiciul nu era prea agreata de catre angajatori, s-a introdus telemunca ca un refresh. Pana sa apara telemunca, angajatorii acceptau munca la domiciliu doar pentru persoanele cu dezabilitati care nu se puteau deplasa pana la sediul lor, zilnic, si a caror activitate nu este de neglijat: fie ca aport important in activitate, fie ca ajutor in reducerea cheltuielilor cu fondul de handicap.
Asadar, telemunca este activitatea prestata de angajati in alt loc decat sediul angajatorului, a cel putin 1 zi/luna.
Telesalariatul este salariatul care isi presteaza activitatea integral sau cel putin o zi/luna din alt loc decat sediul angajatorului.  Telemunca trebuie sa fie mentionata in contractul de munca sau sa faca obiectul unui act aditional incheiat cu acordul partilor.
Contractul de munca al telesalariatului sau actul aditional la contractul de munca se intocmesc in baza Codului Muncii coroborat art. 5 alin 2) din Legea 81/2018, si trebuie sa cuprida cel putin:

  • Mentiunea ca se modifica locul muncii, ca se opteaza pentru telemunca, plus locul/locurile unde se desfasoara activitate in regim de telemunca;
  • Zilele care fac obiectul telemuncii; se mentioneaza daca toata activitatea se desfasoara in regim de telemunca sau zilele expres convenite ca telemunca si restul perioadei de activitate se desfasoara la sediul angajatorului.
  • Programul de munca din zilele de telemunca. Se stabileste o modalitate de a se tine evidenta orelor lucrate, a realizarii normei de munca. Salariatii cu norma intreaga pot efectua in regim de telemunca inclusiv ore suplimentare, insa cu acordul partilor. Angajatorul nu poate obliga telesalariatul la munca suplimentara si nici telesalariatul nu poate veni cu ore suplimentare daca nu a convenit cu angajatorul efectuarea lor. Fortarea telesalariatul la munca suplimentara se sanctioneaza cu 5000 Ron.
  • Intervalul orar, sau perioada cand angajatorul poate verifica munca telesalariatului;
  • Obligatia angajatorului de a pune la dispozitia telesalariatului toate materiale necesare bunei desfasurarii a activitatii,

Telesalariatul are aceleasi drepturi si obligatii ca toti salariatii, iar angajatorul trebuie sa ia masuri ca telesalariatul sa nu fie izolat de restul salariatilor, sa-l informeze si sa-l incurajeze sa participe la activitatile cu echipa, la teambuilding sau alte intalniri cu colegii.
In cazul in care la angajarea unui telesalariat sau la trecerea in regim de telemunca a unui angajat existent nu sunt mentionate cele de mai sus, angajatorul risca amenda de 10.000 Ron pentru fiecare persoana care face obiectul telemuncii.
Angajatorul este obligat sa instruiasca telesalariatul in ceea ce priveste sanatatea si securitatea la locul unde se desfasoara telemunca, altfel risca amenda de 2000 Ron.
In cazul in care telesalariatul nu vrea sa/sa mai presteze activitate in regim de telemunca, acesta nu poate fi obligat de angajator, si nici cercetat disciplinar, sanctionat sau concediat pe acest motiv.
Spre deosebire de munca la domiciliu reglementata expres in Codul Muncii, telemunca obliga angajatorul la instruirea salariatului, permite accesul reprezentatului salariatilor sau al reprezentantului sinducatului sa verifice activitatea telesalariatului si stabileste clar sanctiunile pentru nerespectarea conditiilor de munca in regim telemunca.
Ca avantaje ale telemuncii am gasit:

  • Lipsa concurentei la locul de munca;
  • Lipsa sentimentului de subordonare sefului, si aparitia libertatii de decizie;
  • Eliminarea posibilitatilor de hartuire la locul de munca;
  • Timpul de deplasare de acasa la munca si invers este eliminat, plus stresul zilnic datorat traficului;

Dezavantaje:

  • Lipsa unui spirit de echipa, de colaborare, incurajarea individualismului;
  • Ingreunare si pierderea timpului cu intocmirea documentelor;

Bine de retinut este faptul ca telemunca nu reprezinta acea libertate totala in alegerea locului de unde sa prestezi activitatea, nu poti pleca in concediu si sa-ti iei laptopul sa “ imbini utilul cu placutul” cum ne place noua sa spunem. Locul telemuncii este stabilit in scris, de comun acord, iar daca acest aspect nu este bine stabilit, angajatorul risca amenda de 5000 Ron.
Mai mult, angajatorul trebuie sa instruiasca telesalariatul din punct de al sanatatii si securitatii in munca la locului telemuncii. Daca in timp ce telesalariatul presteaza telemunca intr-un loc de care angajatorul nu a luat cunostinta, se accidenteaza, angajatorul este sanctionat iar telesalariatul cercetat disciplinar. Prin urmare, telemunca nu înseamna libertate, insa este un concept nou care ar putea avea o piata mare datorita dezvoltarii tehnologiei actuale.
 
Asteptam intrebarile dumneavoatra legate de subiect si specialistii nostri va vor raspunde.[:en]Teleworking was approved in April 2018 as an advantage for both the employee and the employer, although there aren’t significant differences from work from home which is mentioned in the Labor Law. However, since work from home was not taken very well by employers, teleworking was introduced as a fresh start. Until telework occurred, employers accepted work from home only for people with disabilities who could not commute daily to their headquarters, and whose activity could not to be neglected: either as an important contribution to the activity or as aid in reducing expenses with the handicap fund.
Therefore, teleworking is the employment where employees carry out their work somewhere else than employer’s headquarters at least one day per month.
The teleworker is the employee who carries out his / her work either as a full-time or part-time/ at least one day per month from a place other than the employer’s headquarters. Teleworking must be mentioned in the employment contract or be subject to an additional act concluded with the agreement of the parties.
The teleworker’s employment contract or the additional act are concluded based on Labor Law in conjunction with art. 5 paragraph 2) of Law 81/2018, and must cover at least:

  •  The term that the workplace is subject to change, the option for telework, plus the place/places where teleworking is going to be performed;
  • The teleworking days; it is mentioned whether the whole activity is carried out as teleworking or only the teleworking days agreed upon (and the rest of the period of activity are carried out at the employer’s headquarters.)
  • Working time / days for teleworking. There must be a system / a way to keep records of the hours worked, to fulfil the required working hours per week. Full-time teleworkers may work overtime, but with the agreement of the parties. The employer can’t oblige teleworkers to work extra hours, and the teleworkers can’t come up with extra hours if it was not agreed upon with their employer. Forcing the teleworker to work extra is penalized with 5000 Ron.
  • Working hours, or the time when the employer can check the teleworker’s work.
  • The obligation of the employer to provide to teleworker all the necessary equipment for a smooth and steady work activity.

The teleworkers has the same rights and obligations as all employees, and the employer must take measures to avoid isolating the teleworkers from the other employees, must inform and encourage them to participate in team activities, teambuilding or other meetings with their colleagues. If the employer does not mention the above, when hiring a teleworker or teleworking of an existing employee, the employer risks a penalty of 10,000 Ron for each teleworker.  The employer must provide adequate and appropriate training on health and safety at work, otherwise risking a fine of 2000 Ron.
If the teleworker no longer wants to perform teleworking, he/she can’t be compelled by the employer, nor put under disciplinary search, sanctioned or dismissed for this reason.
Unlike the work from home expressly regulated in the Labor Law, teleworking obliges the employer to train the employee regarding to the work place, allows the employer or employee representative’s access to check the activity of the teleworker and establishes clearly the penalties for non-compliance with teleworking conditions.
Teleworking’s advantages:

  • Lack of competition at work;
  • Lack of subordination sense, and the appearance of freedom of choice;
  • Elimination of harassment at the workplace;
  • Time spent from home to work and vice versa is eliminated as well as daily stress due to traffic

Disadvantages:

  • Lack of team spirit or collaboration, encouragement of individualism
  • Difficulty and waste of time in paperwork;

Good to remember is that teleworking is doesn’t give a total freedom in choosing where and when to work, you cannot go on vacation and take your laptop with you thinking you can do both at the same time.The place of teleworking is established in writing, mutually agreed with the employer, and if this is not well established, the employer risks a fine of 5000 Ron.
Furthermore, the employer has to train the teleworker regarding health and safety at the workplace. If  teleworker decides working somewhere else without employer’s knowledge, and get any injuries or is being exposed to any hazards, the employer is sanctioned, and the teleworker is disciplinarily investigated.
Therefore, teleworking does not mean freedom, however it is something new to the market and might have a large market due to nowadays’ technology development.[:]

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